Interview Questions

Demo Video Course Content Interview Questions

  1. Is it possible to add an existing VM to an availability set?

Explanation: No. If you want your VM to be part of an availability set, you need to create the VM within the set. There currently no way to add a VM to an availability set after it has been created.

  1. What is a web role?

A web role provides a dedicated Internet Information Services (IIS) web-server used for hosting front-end web applications.

3.What is a worker role?

Applications hosted within worker roles can run asynchronous, long-running or perpetual tasks independent of user interaction or input.

  1. What is a role instance?

A role instance is a virtual machine on which the application code and role configuration run. A role can have multiple instances, defined in the service configuration file.

  1. What is a guest operating system?

The guest operating system for a cloud service is the operating system installed on the role instances (virtual machines) on which your application code runs.

  1. What is a cloud service components?

Three components are required in order to deploy an application as a cloud service in Azure:

  1. What is deployment environments?

Azure offers two deployment environments for cloud services: a staging environment in which you can test your deployment before you promote it to the production environment. The two environments are distinguished only by the virtual IP addresses (VIPs) by which the cloud service is accessed. In the staging environment, the cloud service’s globally unique identifier (GUID) identifies it in URLs (GUID.cloudapp.net). In the production environment, the URL is based on the friendlier DNS prefix assigned to the cloud service (for example, myservice.cloudapp.net).

  1. What is swap deployments?

To promote a deployment in the Azure staging environment to the production environment, you can “swap” the deployments by switching the VIPs by which the two deployments are accessed. After the deployment, the DNS name for the cloud service points to the deployment that had been in the staging environment.

  1. What is minimal vs. verbose monitoring?

Minimal monitoring, which is configured by default for a cloud service, uses performance counters gathered from the host operating systems for role instances (virtual machines). Verbose monitoring gathers additional metrics based on performance data within the role instances to enable closer analysis of issues that occur during application processing. For more information

  1. What is a service definition file?

The cloud service definition file (.csdef) defines the service model, including the number of roles.

  1. What is a service configuration file?

The cloud service configuration file (.cscfg) provides configuration settings for the cloud service and individual roles, including the number of role instances.

  1. What is a service package?

The service package (.cspkg) contains the application code and the service definition file.

 

  1. What is a cloud service deployment?

A cloud service deployment is an instance of a cloud service deployed to the Azure staging or production environment. You can maintain deployments in both staging and production.

  1. What is Azure Diagnostics?

Azure Diagnostics is the API that enables you to collect diagnostic data from applications running in Azure. Azure Diagnostics must be enabled for cloud service roles in order for verbose monitoring to be turned on.

  1. What is Azure Service Level Agreement (SLA)?

The Azure Compute SLA guarantees that, when you deploy two or more role instances for every role, access to your cloud service will be maintained at least 99.95 percent of the time. Also, detection and corrective action will be initiated 99.9 percent of the time when a role instance’s process is not running.

  1. What are the options to manage session state in Windows Azure?

Windows Azure Caching

SQL Azure

Azure Table 

  1. What is cspack?

It is a command-line tool that generates a service package file (.cspkg) and prepares an application for deployment, either to Windows Azure or to the compute emulator. 

  1. What is csrun?

It is a command-line tool that deploys a packaged application to the Windows Azure compute emulator and manages the running service.

  1. What is guest OS?

It is the operating system that runs on the virtual machine that hosts an instance of a role.

 20.What is fabric?

In the Windows Azure cloud fabric is nothing but a combination of many virtualized instances which run client application

  1. Where can I find a list of applications that are pre-integrated with Azure AD and their capabilities?

Explanation: Azure AD has around 2600 pre-integrated applications. All pre-integrated applications support single sign-on (SSO). SSO let you use your organizational credentials to access your apps. Some of the applications also support automated provisioning and de-provisioning.

  1. How can I use applications with Azure AD that I’m using on-premises?

Explanation: Azure AD gives you an easy and secure way to connect to the web applications you choose. You can access these applications in the same way you access your SaaS apps in Azure AD, no need for a VPN to change your network infrastructure.

  1. What is Azure Service Fabric?

Explanation: Azure Service Fabric is a distributed systems platform that makes it easy to package, deploy, and manage scalable and reliable micro-services. Service Fabric also addresses the significant challenges in developing and managing cloud applications. Developers and administrators can avoid complex infrastructure problems and focus on implementing mission-critical, demanding workloads that are scalable, reliable, and manageable. Service Fabric represents the next-generation middleware platform for building and managing these enterprise-class, tier-1, cloud-scale applications.

  1. What is a VNet?

Explanation: VNet is a representation of your own network in the cloud. It logically isolates your instances launched in the cloud, from the rest of your resources.

  1. What are the differences between Subscription Administrator and Directory Administrator?

Explanation: By default, one is assigned the Subscription Administrator role when he/she signs up for Azure. A subscription admin can use either a Microsoft account or a work or school account from the directory that the Azure subscription is associated with. This role is authorized to manage services in the Azure portal. If others need to sign in and access services by using the same subscription, you can add them as co-admins.

Azure AD has a different set of admin roles to manage the directory and identity-related features. These admins will have access to various features in the Azure portal or the Azure classic portal. The admin’s role determines what they can do, like create or edit users, assign administrative roles to others, reset user passwords, manage user licenses, or manage domains.

  1. Are there any scale limitations for customers using managed disks?

Explanation: Managed Disks eliminates the limits associated with storage accounts. However, the number of managed disks per subscription is limited to 2000 by default.

  1. What is the difference between Service Bus Queues and Storage Queues?

Explanation: The Azure Storage Queue is simple and the developer experience is quite good. It uses the local Azure Storage Emulator and debugging is made quite easy. The tooling for Azure Storage Queues allows you to easily peek at the top 32 messages and if the messages are in XML or Json, you’re able to visualize their contents directly from Visual Studio Furthermore, these queues can be purged of their contents, which is especially useful during development and QA efforts.

The Azure Service Bus Queues are evolved and surrounded by many useful mechanisms that make it enterprise worthy! They are built into the Service Bus and are able to forward messages to other Queues and Topics. They have a built-in dead-letter queue and messages have a time to live that you control, hence messages don’t automatically disappear after 7 days.

Furthermore, Azure Service Bus Queues have the ability of deleting themselves after a configurable amount of idle time. This feature is very practical when you create Queues for each user, because if a user hasn’t interacted with a Queue for the past month, it automatically gets clean it up. Its also a great way to drive costs down. You shouldn’t have to pay for storage that you don’t need. These Queues are limited to a maximum of 80gb. Once you’ve reached this limit your application will start receiving exceptions.

  1. What is Azure Redis Cache?

Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache and message broker. Azure Redis Cache is based on the popular open-source Redis cache. It gives you access to a secure, dedicated Redis cache, managed by Microsoft, and accessible from any application within Azure.  It supports data structures such as strings, hashes, lists, sets, sorted sets with range queries, bitmaps, hyperloglogs and geospatial indexes with radius queries.

 

  1. Why doesn’t Azure Redis Cache have an MSDN class library reference like some of the other Azure services?

Explanation: Microsoft Azure Redis Cache is based on the popular open source Redis Cache and can be accessed by a wide variety of Redis clients for many programming languages. Each client has its own API that makes calls to the Redis cache instance using Redis commands.

Because each client is different, there is not one centralized class reference on MSDN, and each client maintains its own reference documentation. In addition to the reference documentation, there are several tutorials showing how to get started with Azure Redis Cache using different languages and cache clients. To access these tutorials, see How to use Azure Redis Cache and click the desired language from the language switcher at the top of the article.

  1. What are Redis databases?

Explanation: Redis Databases are just a logical separation of data within the same Redis instance. The cache memory is shared between all the databases and actual memory consumption of a given database depends on the keys/values stored in that database. For example, a C6 cache has 53 GB of memory. You can choose to put all 53 GB into one database or you can split it up between multiple databases.

  1. What are virtual machine scale sets in Azure?

Explanation: Virtual machine scale sets are Azure compute resource that you can use to deploy and manage a set of identical VMs. With all the VMs configured the same, scale sets are designed to support true autoscale, and no pre-provisioning of VMs is required. So it’s easier to build large-scale services that target big compute, big data, and containerized workloads.

  1. Are data disks supported within scale sets?

Explanation: Yes. A scale set can define an attached data disk configuration that applies to all VMs in the set. Other options for storing data include:

Azure files (SMB shared drives)

OS drive

Temp drive (local, not backed by Azure Storage)

Azure data service (for example, Azure tables, Azure blobs)

External data service (for example, remote database) 

  1. What is an Availability Set?

Explanation: An availability set is a logical grouping of VMs that allows Azure to understand how your application is built to provide redundancy and availability. It is recommended that two or more VMs are created within an availability set to provide for a highly available application and to meet the 99.95% Azure SLA. When a single VM is used with Azure Premium Storage, the Azure SLA applies for unplanned maintenance events.

  1. What are Fault Domains?

Explanation: A fault domain is a logical group of underlying hardware that share a common power source and network switch, similar to a rack within an on-premise data-centers. As you create VMs within an availability set, the Azure platform automatically distributes your VMs across these fault domains. This approach limits the impact of potential physical hardware failures, network outages, or power interruptions.

  1. What are Update Domains?

Explanation: An update domain is a logical group of underlying hardware that can undergo maintenance or can be rebooted at the same time. As you create VMs within an availability set, the Azure platform automatically distributes your VMs across these update domains. This approach ensures that at least one instance of your application always remains running as the Azure platform undergoes periodic maintenance. The order of update domains being rebooted may not proceed sequentially during planned maintenance, but only one update domain is rebooted at a time.

  1. What are Network Security Groups?

Explanation: A network security group (NSG) contains a list of Access Control List (ACL) rules that allow or deny network traffic to subnets, NICs, or both. NSGs can be associated with either subnets or individual NICs connected to a subnet. When an NSG is associated with a subnet, the ACL rules apply to all the VMs in that subnet. In addition, traffic to an individual NIC can be restricted by associating an NSG directly to a NIC.

  1. Do scale sets work with Azure availability sets?

Explanation: Yes. A scale set is an implicit availability set with 5 fault domains and 5 update domains. Scale sets of more than 100 VMs span multiple placement groups, which are equivalent to multiple availability sets. An availability set of VMs can exist in the same virtual network as a scale set of VMs. A common configuration is to put control node VMs (which often require unique configuration) in an availability set and put data nodes in the scale set.

  1. What is a break-fix issue?

Explanation: Technical problems are called break-fix issue, it is an industry term which refers to “work involved in supporting a technology when it fails in the normal course of its function, which requires intervention by a support organization to be restored to working order”.

  1. Why is Azure Active Directory used?

Explanation: Azure Active Directory is an Identity and Access Management system. It is used to grant access to your employees to specific products and services in your network. For example: Salesforce.com, twitter etc. Azure AD has some in-built support for applications in its gallery which can be added directly.

  1. What happens when you exhaust the maximum failed attempts for authenticating yourself via Azure AD?

Explanation: We use a more sophisticated strategy to lock accounts. This is based on the IP address of the request and the passwords entered. The duration of the lockout also increases based on the likelihood that it is an attack.

  1. What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered

as a service over a network (typically the Internet).

  1. What are the different type of services offered in the cloud?

Explanation:  The different type of services offered in the cloud are:

IaaS

PaaS

SaaS

IaaS: In infrastructure as a service, you get the raw hardware from your cloud provider as a service i.e you get a server which you can configure with your own qill.

PaaS: Platform as a Service, gives you a platform to publish without giving the access to the underlying software or OS. For example: Web Apps, Mobile Apps in Azure.

SaaS: You get software as a service in Azure, i.e no infrastructure, no platform, simple software that you can use without purchasing it. For example: when you launch a VM on Azure, you are not buying the OS, you are basically renting it for the time you will be running that instance.

  1. What are the different cloud deployment models?

Explanation: Following are the three cloud deployment models:

Public Cloud: The infrastructure is owned by your cloud provider and the server that you are using could be a multi-tenant system.

 

Private Cloud: The infrastructure is owned by you or your cloud provider gives you that service exclusively. For eg: Hosting your website on your servers, or hosting your website with the cloud provider on a dedicated server.

 

Hybrid Cloud: When you use both Public Cloud, Private Cloud together, it is called Hybrid Cloud. For Example: Using your in-house servers for confidential data, and the public cloud for hosting your company’s public facing website. This type of setup would be a hybrid cloud.

 

  1. I have some private servers on my premises, also I have distributed some of my workload on the public cloud, what is this architecture called?

1 Virtual Private Network

2 Private Cloud

3 Virtual Private Cloud

4 Hybrid Cloud

Answer: 4. Hybrid Cloud

Explanation: This type of architecture would be a hybrid cloud. Why? Because we are using both, the public cloud, and on premises servers i.e the private cloud. To make this hybrid architecture easy to use, wouldn’t it be better if your private and public cloud were all on the same network (virtually). This is established by including your public cloud servers in a virtual private cloud, and connecting virtual cloud with your on premise servers using a VPN (Virtual Private Network).

  1. What is Microsoft Azure and why is it used?

Explanation: As discussed above, the companies which provide the cloud service are called the Cloud Providers. There are a lot of cloud providers out there, out of them one is Microsoft Azure. It is used for accessing Microsoft’s infrastructure for cloud.

  1. Which service in Azure is used to manage resources in Azure?

A.Application Insights

B.Azure Resource Manager

C.Azure Portal

D.Log Analytics

Answer: B Azure Resource Manager

Explanation: Azure Resource Manager is used to “manage” infrastructures which involve a no. of azure services. It can be used to deploy, manage and delete all the resources together using a simple JSON script.

  1. Which of the following web applications can be deployed with Azure?

A.NET

B.PHP

C.WCF

D.All of the mentioned

Answer: D All of the mentioned

Explanation: Microsoft also has released SDKs for both Java and Ruby to allow applications written in those languages to place calls to the Azure Service Platform API to the AppFabric Service.

  1. What are Roles and why do we use them?

Explanation: Roles are nothing servers in layman terms. These servers are managed, load balanced, Platform as a Service virtual machines that work together to achieve a common goal.

There are 3 types of roles in Microsoft Azure:

Web Role

Worker Role

VM  Role

  1. A _________ role is a virtual machine instance running Microsoft IIS Web server that can accept and respond to HTTP or HTTPS requests.

A.Web

B.Server

C.Worker

D.Client

Answer: A. Web

Explanation: The answer should be Web Roles, there are no roles such as Server or Client roles. Also, Worker roles can only communicate with Azure Storage or through direct connections to clients.

  1. Is it possible to create a Virtual Machine using Azure Resource Manager in a Virtual Network that was created using classic deployment?

Explanation: This is not supported. You cannot use Azure Resource Manager to deploy a virtual machine into a virtual network that was created using classic deployment.